假偶像的倒塌,真启蒙的开始 -- 许锡良 2012/2/25

假偶像的倒塌,真启蒙的开始

作者: 许锡良 2012/2/25

http://blog.ifeng.com/article/16484204.html


如果韩寒作为一个代笔包装出来的假偶像,在众多质疑声中倒下,这并不会意味着所谓中国启蒙的终结,而恰恰是意味着中国启蒙的开始。

什么叫启蒙?启,就是启迪人的思想智慧,学会用人的理性思考问题,而不是靠盲目崇拜偶像来支撑自己的认识,蒙,就是蒙蔽与假相。启蒙,就是用人的理性智慧去认识事物的本质与真相。中国人,如果能够真正摆脱偶像崇拜,学会质疑问难,学会提出问题,思考问题,而不是盲目迷信与崇拜,则这意味着真正启蒙的开始。

西方历经漫长的中世纪之后的文艺复兴运动与思想启蒙运动,主要是做了两个方面的工作,一是恢复古希腊的文化,重新树立以人为本的价值观,重新重视人的欲望、要求与人性化的价值标准。这个时候的代表性的文学作品有意大利乔万尼?薄伽丘(“The Decameron”(1350)byGiovanni Boccaccio (1313 ——1375)的《十日谈》,这部著作标志着西方社会由但丁的《神曲》,转成了薄伽丘的《人曲》。由神到人的转化,主要是由文学作品与其他艺术作品来完成的,如意大利著名画家列奥纳多?达?芬奇(Leonardo da Vinci ,1452年4月15日—1519年5月2日)其作品《蒙娜丽莎》、《最后的晚餐》等艺术作品。达.芬奇同时还是当时伟大的哲学家、天文学家、物理学家、医学家、建筑学家、机械发明家、水利地质专家,在多个领域都做出过杰出贡献。是真正的人类历史上的旷世奇才。二是从尊重人的欲望满足,到尊重人的理性,即学会求真,追求确实性的真知识。这个启蒙工作主要是由当时的哲学家与科学家来共同完成的。从英国培根的《新工具》,同时代还有英国的著名哲学家洛克的《人类理解论》到法国的大数学家、哲学家莱布尼茨的《人类理智新论》,英国的科学家牛顿对经典物理学的集大成发现与数学方法的新发现。法国的思想家帕斯卡尔在其《思想录》里,强调“人是一棵会思维的苇草”,人在宇宙中的全部价值就在于人会思考,而宇宙中的万物不会。还有荷兰的哲学家斯宾诺莎的《知性改进论》(Tractatusdelnte-llectusEmendatione),认识人类社会关系的著名法国思想家孟德斯鸠的《论法的精神》,英国哲学家休谟的《人性论》,法国卢梭的《社会契约论》、《爱弥尔》、《论人类不平等的起源》,德国哲学家康德的三大批判著作——《纯粹理性批判》、《实践理性批判》和《判断力批判》等等,都是探讨人类如何认识世界,认识人类社会,怎样才能够获得真知识,用理性论证的方法确立人类社会人的神圣地位,怎样才能够有对世界有正确的认识,怎样才能够不被自然界的外表假相与人类社会的假相所蒙蔽,都一一作出了自己的探讨与尝试性的回答。

在质疑这个问题上最值得一说的是,欧洲思想启蒙时代法国著名的哲学家、科学家和数学家勒内?笛卡尔(Rene Descartes,1596——1650)他当时谈论思想方法的著作很多,比如,《谈谈方法》、《哲学原理》、《形而上学的沉思》等等,在这些著作里,他提出了新的认识事物的方法,那就是理性。他那句名言:“我思故我在”已经成了千古名言。其所依据的人类理性,其实就是要求我们要服从理性,而不能盲从。他提出,我们已有的观念和论断有很多是极其可疑的,我们处在真假难分的状态中是不可能确定真理的。为了追求真理,必须对一切都尽可能地怀疑,甚至像“上帝存在”这样的教条,怀疑它也不会产生思想矛盾,说明一个人质疑的能力是一个人理性发达程度的重要标志,正是笛卡尔开启了人类质疑的大门,使人类从理性,从方法上学会了质疑的方法。只有这样才能破旧立新,这就是笛卡尔式怀疑。这种怀疑不同于否定一切知识的不可知论,而是以怀疑为手段,达到去伪存真的目的,所以被称为“方法论的怀疑”。笛卡尔的怀疑对象,甚至包括了当时万能的上帝,这在当时质疑的边界与底线无疑是大大地被突破了。那个时候,连万能的上帝都难遭受质疑。其思想启蒙性可谓是最彻底了。纵观西欧思想启蒙时代,其实就是还原人性,学会运用理性,掌握科学方法的过程。人类第一次通过大规模的思想运动,开拓了众多的思想领域,涌现了无数的思想大家,至今仍然闪耀着思想的智慧。很难想像,今天中国的人造假神韩寒被人质疑,竟然有人就要哀叹,这是中国思想启蒙的终结。我不知道在一些人心目中,启蒙究竟是一个什么样的概念,有着怎样的内涵。

但是,我相信,即使是在当今的中国,也不能够超越西方思想启蒙运动的那些问题。启蒙无非是要完成两个任务,一是确立以人为本的人性化社会的价值标准,二是要学会用科学的方法与理性的工具去追求真相,还原事实。前者是目的,后者是手段。没有真相,就不可能保护人权,保证人的自由。人类社会就难免罪孽深重、罪恶滔天。无论科学探索,还是民主法治,说到底无非是为了人类的幸福。科学是探索自然的真相与奥秘,让大自然为人类的福祉服务,民主自由的社会是要探究人类社会的真相,以免人类自相残杀。民主自由的社会,不过是运用科学的方法来保证社会真相不被权力与金钱所遮蔽而已。

中国人自古以来既缺乏人性化的标准,也缺乏科学的理性方法,不会追求真相,还原真相,喜欢说“所谓真相就是没有真相”,“所谓没有谎言,就是最大的谎言”,使得中国人似乎要获得真相永远不可能,要得到真言最终也只能够得到谎言一样。中国人似乎只配在假相与谎言中度过。

史官文化的特色,又使中国人特别喜欢通过树立典型而不是通过开启民智来促进社会的发展。树立典型,其实仍然是个人崇拜与蒙昧思想的表现,因为典型常常就是要让人放弃思考,放弃质疑,甚至要求从服从到盲从,从相信到迷信。显然那是反智的,其目的只是让人的思想水平处于幼儿的简直模仿的那种水平,以方便专制独裁的统治需要。所谓“榜样的力量是无穷的”,这是中国人发明的名言,也是中国人最喜欢的名言。这些,确实是反智文化的集中表现。

有意思的是,中国近半个世纪以来曾经出现过两个风靡全国的正面典型。一个是伟大领袖号召全国人民都要学的雷锋,后来证明,那是用公权包装出来的假货。这个假偶像,在中国人心中整整半个世纪以来,总是挥之不去,割舍不下,至今仍然让中国人如痴如醉,如获至宝。另一个典型,就是现在正遭受着质疑的韩寒,这个典型一反旧传统的凡典型都是由官府推荐,再由圣上钦定的程序,而是由民间发起,商业包装成学识渊博的作家、民间疾苦的代言人、社会公知领袖、时代的个性青年、著名运动员、80后青春偶像等等。虽然他们包装的力量与资源来源不同,但是,效果一样的,那就是都让中国人分不清南北,搞不清东西,放弃追求真相,盲目崇拜与迷信。而且历史开的玩笑也是一样的,那就是,都被证明是假的。一些思想启蒙者对雷锋的假相都能够极尽能事地讽刺与揭露,却唯独对韩寒的假相极力替他掩盖,没有想到,假的就是假的,掩盖的人,声势再浩大,社会声望再高,人数再众多,都是无法掩盖一个假的东西的。这正如一个巨大的气球,虽然是庞然大物,看似吓人,但是,却经不住一根针的挑战一样。

许多中国人从质疑韩寒假偶像这个事件中学到了什么呢?就是学会了求真,并且学会了用科学理性的方法、逻辑的推理、证据的搜集去揭开重重迷雾,去追求事实,还原真相。韩寒这个假偶像的倒掉,并不意味着中国启蒙的终结,而恰恰说明中国人的启蒙从此开始。毕竟,许多中国人已经知道了,民主、自由、法治、人权这些人类追求的理想目标本身就是为了确保一个真相大白,而且理想目标本身也是要建立在真实的基础上的,质疑韩寒,这是自由与真相,目的与手段的合一,而不是对立。

2012年2月25日星期六

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