惊心动魄的日本美女博士造假事件 作者:梁力

撒谎造假,是地球人所憎恶的事,但对其危害的认知和容忍程度,各国有异。下面是发生在国外的两起学术打假案例,发人深省。

  一起是发生在日本的“小保方晴子造假事件”。

  去年1月29日,日本年轻的美女博士小保方晴子在世界最权威的《自然杂志》同时发表了两篇论文,称发现了STAP细胞。这是生物学上的重大突破,是获取诺贝尔奖级别的发现。

   在女科学家短缺的日本,这一成就引起了极大震动。然而,还没等日本人真正兴奋起来,美国生物学权威保罗·纽泼勒就隔洋喊话,直指成果涉假。接着,保罗· 纽泼勒等人在自己的实验室,按小保方晴子所说的方法反复实验,证实小保方晴子的结论不能重现,并将这个发现刊登于《自然杂志》新闻栏里。

  这个结果,让日本各界一下子懵了,他们认为小保方晴子令日本蒙羞,于是,谴责之声震天响起。

  一马当先的当然是媒体了,那种穷追猛打的劲头,单看报道的数量就让人窒息。从事件曝光到去年年底,日本媒体的质疑、起底、讥讽等报道和评论就达三四十万篇之多,像著名的《产经新闻》,平均每天就有两篇相关报道。

  日本民众和各界也责难连连,其中竟有不被人待见的日本AV行业,他们讥讽说,愿出1亿日元,请晴子出演实验室性爱片。

  面对沸腾的舆论,小保方晴子供职的日本理化学研究所羞愤不已,迅速成立一个6人联合调查委员会,对事件展开调查,并立即封闭实验室,不让当事者进入,以防其做手脚。

   4月1日,日本理化学研究所的调查结果就出来,认定小保方晴子在STAP细胞论文中有篡改、捏造等造假问题,属于学术不端行为。认定她是一个缺乏研究伦 理,不谦虚,不诚实,也不合格的学者。她“歪曲了科学本质,玷污了‘研究’二字,并且严重伤害了大众对研究人员的信任”。

  曾参与此项研究的日本生物学权威若山照彦教授,这时也站出来承认,在没有晴子参与的情况下,自己的研究团队做不出来她说的那个结果,并向社会各界深表歉意。

  从日本人对事件反应之强烈程度,便可得知弄虚作假在他们眼中,是怎样的一种丑恶行径。

  这时,一直保持沉默小保方晴子,却在记者招待会上含泪申辩说:“STAP细胞确实有,自己已经成功制出了200次以上。”

  对此,日本理化学研究所根本不理会,坚持认为这是学术造假,并再次宣布,一个月后公布对她的处理结果。小保方晴子则反驳说她的发现有效,提出不服申诉。双方各执一词,僵持不下。

   6月4日,双方达成妥协:小保方晴子同意将两篇论文从《自然杂志》撤下,而理化所则同意让她回到实验室,重复完成她认为成立的实验,但条件是:另为她开 设实验室,并在实验室入口处和室内安装三个摄像头,做全天候的监控,并指定第三方人员作现场公证。此外,细胞的培养仪器将上锁,出入实验室实施电子卡门禁 管理。实验到11月份结束。

  无疑,实验室已成了监督严密的“考场”,小保方晴子在这里,或洗白自己,或万劫不复。

  最终的实验结果让人心碎。12月18日,日本理化学研究对外宣布,小保方晴子未能再现万能细胞,实验终止。随后,小保方晴子黯然辞职。

  “考试”方式虽然残酷,但公允透明,它让假的真不了。

  此次事件还引发了一场“血案”。小保方晴子的导师笹井芳树,在8月间突然自杀。他在给传媒的一封电子邮件中称,自己“被耻辱感淹没了。他是以死来向社会谢罪。

  今年2月10日,日本理化学研究所宣布对事件的处罚结果:小保方晴子“应予以解雇处分”,若山照彦教授等相关人员则给予停止上班、严重警告等处分。

  就在前几天,日本理化学研究所再次宣布,要求在小保方晴子退还研究费中的约60万日元论文投稿费用,但不提起刑事诉讼。事件最终了结。

  日本人以一场“考试”和一宗“血案”,演绎了惊心动魄的学术打假实例。有人问,日本人为何能在几十年间取得22个诺贝尔奖?答案很明白:较真精神起了决定性作用。

  另一起是发生在法国的“罗丹代表作《青铜时代》涉嫌造假事件”。

  1876年,著名雕塑大师罗丹创作了一尊裸体男青年青铜雕塑,名为《青铜年代》。由于作品精准地抓住了人物瞬间的表情动态,仿如真人再现,在巴黎官方沙龙展出时,引起极大轰动。

   然而,由于作品太过逼真传神,加之尺寸(1.74米)与真人所差无几,一些心怀叵测和不明真相的评论界人士便在报纸上指责说作品是“从真人身上翻下来的 模子浇铸的”。一时间,引起众怒,“艺术骗子”和“伤风败俗的流氓”等指责声四起。巴黎官方沙龙陷入尴尬境地,只好勒令《青铜时代》搬出展厅。

  面对各种恶毒的责骂,罗丹百口莫辩,迷茫无助。

  最终,巴黎官方沙龙想出了一个辨别真假的办法:派出五名雕塑家为评审,让罗丹即时创作一件作品,以见证他的实力。

  在“考试”现场,罗丹凭借平时夜以继日的基本功训练和对人体解剖知识的精准把握,在不用模特儿的情况下,《青铜时代》的躯干和双腿很快就被塑出来,和原作几乎不差丝毫,在场的雕塑家目瞪口呆,提前终止了评审……

  真相大白后,罗丹的超人才华震惊法国,名声大振。之后,作品重新展出,并被法国政府收购。

  罗丹的“赴考”,自证了才华,剥去了迷雾;小保方晴子的“赴考”,虽说是自取其辱,但我们还应感谢她的“勇气”,因为这场“考试”让一切昭然若揭。

   联想到发生于国内扰攘多时的“韩寒代笔门”事件,则让人感慨。在涉嫌代笔质疑十分有力的情况下,不仅没有出现一场甄别真伪的“考试”,更没有探究真相的 深入调查,事件在强大的“挺寒派”搅浑下,最终演变成“悬案”。而“挺寒”的“中流砥柱”,竟是众多学界名人和有影响的传媒。结果呢,当事者偶像地位至今 不倒,名利依旧双收。

  对于欺骗造假,我们应有这样一个识见:刨根问底,只问黑白,不问是非。不然,打假人人喊,繁荣依旧在的尴尬局面就会不消失。

  http://cul.qq.com/a/20150329/023235.htm?tu_biz=1.114.2.3

  羊城晚报 [微博] 梁力2015-03-29 15:05

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