肖鹰:韩寒、郭敬明代表两种文化病态

中国教育新闻网—中国教育报 2015年03月30日

 

      编者按:从去年9月起,清华大学哲学系教授、博士生导师肖鹰以《当下文化病态批评》为题,已在吉林大学、南京大学、武汉大学等全国十余所高校做了解读当下文化现象的演讲。肖鹰教授的观点,一度引起网络的广泛热议。本报今日摘要刊发肖鹰教授在中国政法大学的演讲,以期引起更多大学师生和研究者的关注。题目为编者所拟。

 

      肖鹰,1962生。毕业于北京大学,哲学博士、文学博士后。现任清华大学哲学系教授、博士生导师。

      主要研究领域:美学、当代文化。曾应邀在德国波恩大学中国文史哲系(原名汉学系)作客座教授。2010年6月至7月,作为剑桥暑期学人访问剑桥大学。2007年入选“中国教育部新世纪优秀人才支持计划”。

      曾主持国家和省部级课题多项。已出版多部学术著作;在《中国社会科学》、《哲学研究》、《文艺研究》和《文学评论》等期刊发表学术论文多篇。

      谈郭敬明现象

      在当下这个大数据时代,他们的追随其实很大程度上是被控制或被诱导的。所以郭敬明的粉丝都非常不讲道理。因为作为粉丝时,他们不再为自己作为个人承担责任,也不再需要道德。

      谈韩寒现象

      韩寒事件目前是没有公论的。可是如果面对这样影响巨大的事件,我们都没有勇气、没有努力去追求真相,那简直等于精神自杀。

      当下文化有很多病态现象,我主要以郭敬明和韩寒这两个80后典型人物为案例,剖析当下文化中的几大病态。谈当下文化病态之前,我们需要先了解一下当下文化的基本特性。

      意义缺损与媒介控制

      现代媒介哲学之父麦克卢汉在《理解媒介》里提出了一个重要命题:媒介即信息。我们通过电视、网络等媒介来接收信息,而媒介对信息的编辑、传播,我们的解读方式,都会影响信息构成及其意义。关于当下媒介和时代的关系,我主要谈两点:

      第一,在信息时代,我们的信息接收面临着“图像诡计”的问题,即我们在接收图像时会面临信息缺损和意义扭曲。2013年年末有一张著名的新闻图片:在南非民族英雄、前总统曼德拉的葬礼上,美国总统奥巴马、丹麦首相施密特、英国首相卡梅伦三个人在玩自拍,旁边是苦着脸的米歇尔,被解读为正在吃施密特的醋。三位西方政要在这位非洲伟大领袖的葬礼上竟然玩自拍,舆论哗然,一片谴责之声。但我们不妨再看看同一个记者在另一个角度拍的照片:南非人民用歌舞和欢笑,向曼德拉告别,表达对他的崇高敬意。在葬礼上,用歌舞、欢乐告别受人爱戴的逝者,是南非风俗。其实,丧事喜办,是不少民族的习俗。但在中国或西方的文化语境中,在葬礼上玩自拍就是伤风败俗了!如果我们先看这张展现南非人民送别曼德拉的欢悦场景的照片,再看这张自拍图片,会不会觉得所谓“出格”举动,实际上与葬礼场景是融洽的?

      在媒介传播中,因为信息缺损和意义扭曲,真实的图像并不等于真实场景,真实场景不等于真实的意义,即“真像≠真相≠真实”,这就是我说的“图像诡计”。网络媒介现在是整合一切媒介的新媒体,从“自拍门”事件可见,新媒体传播非常便利,但也非常危险。

      第二,当今文化时代面临着大数据监测和媒介控制的问题。舍恩伯格在《大数据时代》中说,大数据是通过网络技术发生的,比如谷歌。谷歌主要经营的不是卖广告,而是采集数据。它把所有的搜索信息储存起来进行分类,分析出各类人群喜欢什么,再提供给相关商业组织。因此,关于购买什么、不买什么,虽然貌似是自由的,实际上却是通过数据采集和分析、进行监控与预测后的结果。所以大数据带来了大控制,而且是无形的控制。大数据时代的全面监控和预测,既是经济的也可以是文化和政治的。

      信息超载造成了一种一塌糊涂、真假莫辨的状态。因此,对信息进行质疑和辨别,是当下的一种基本生存技能。我们需要养成怀疑性的认知习惯,否则很可能被操控。

      技术媒介的狂欢

      技术媒介有一种狂欢本能,落实到文化表现上,就是消费现实与无耻娱乐。“犀利哥热”正是网络消费与娱乐的典型表现。2010年春节后,“犀利哥”填补了年初媒体的娱乐空白,成为当时网络狂欢的焦点。

      事件最初,是有一个购买相机的人在试相机时偶然拍到门外一个流浪汉,将照片传到一个圈子网站。后来照片被转载到天涯网站,加了一个超长、怪诞的标题,称照片上的人物是“秒杀宇内究极华丽第一极品路人帅哥”,“帅到刺瞎你的狗眼”,紧接着“求亲们人肉详细资料”。就这样发动了一场网络狂欢。狂欢的第一步是把“犀利哥”和时尚挂钩,称他为当时第一“混搭”高手,对他的图片进行大量的PS,怀旧的、时尚的等等,还有人说美国也有“犀利哥”。最后,看似不含功利的网络狂欢出现了品牌logo,商业面目终于浮出水面。真实的“犀利哥”是一位江西农民,当时在宁波打工。他精神有些问题,跟家人失散多年,家中有两个儿子。这个生活于贫寒境遇中的“犀利哥”就一点也不“犀利”了。

      我个人认为,“犀利哥热”的出现,并非网络自发现象。而是一次网络营销商和品牌营销商的合谋,目的就是推出一个热点,让品牌、网络双赢,这就是消费现实。某种程度上,它没有造假,但恰恰是其中的真实为网络和推手提供了营销炒作空间,肆意扭曲现实的真实意义,消费现实。

      我们对信息的接收,是一种被切断语境的接收。缺乏了背景,现实可以被任意重塑。学过电影的人都知道,同样的镜头,前后连接不一样,意义可能完全相反。这就是媒介的力量,这种力量被用于一种狂欢,网络因此走向极度的娱乐化。这种狂欢会从根本上瓦解并颠覆传统文化的价值选择,以负价值代替正价值,丑的代替美的,恶的代替善的,假的代替真的。这样便催生了网络审丑化。

      网络文化有两个基本特点。第一,网络技术将传播的单向路径改写为交互式传播。第二,网络传播具有高速流动性,所以会有“刷屏”的概念。经典、美好的东西在网络文化中难以避免的遭遇,就是被瓦解或颠覆。这时人们会发现,什么东西能吸引眼球,什么东西就能存在;谁能出奇、出怪、出丑、玩狠犯傻,最后拿板砖拍自己脑袋,谁就是高手!凤姐每一句话都是自我糟蹋、自我拍砖,但大家会发现,她每一句话都直击我们的心扉,让我们感到自己无所不在的优越和优势。

      “网络审丑化”使人们失去了自己最后一点廉耻。比如这几年很火的车模干露露,她母亲和她一起在大庭广众下拍摄大尺度照片,主流电视台也跟着做这种“人肉”生意。只有当她们、她们背后的推手以及观赏她们的看客都丧失了羞耻感,干露露们的“祼肉秀”才有市场。中国文化的病态,很大程度上是由“唯市场化”导致的,票房、点击率决定一切。在这种文化背景下,我们中国是彻底“时尚化”了。德国社会哲学家西美尔在《时尚的哲学》中指出,时尚的动机是超越客观、超越审美和其他应用性的,时尚的动机只是一种形式社会学。在时尚普及化的时代,大众行为都以丧失羞耻感为标准。没有羞耻感,才可能有时尚的运动。这也许就是干露露母女走到这个地步的原因。这就是当下文化的病态结果。

      乌合之众与粉丝文化

      在这个标题下我想讲的是郭敬明。郭敬明有很多追随者,对于他们,郭敬明的小说虽然絮絮叨叨、反复重叠,但是并不枯燥,永远是“新鲜的”。阅读郭敬明,不再是文学欣赏,而是一种被消费文化严重殖民之后的生活行为。就像我们习惯不时翻看手机,这只是一个下意识的动作,尽管手机并没给你带来真正的新信息,但是你还是要不时翻看。我认为,对于郭敬明的粉丝,阅读他的小说、看他的电影,是一个全方位、整合性的一体化深层活动,一种生活——郭敬明粉丝生活。

      谈郭敬明现象,必须谈他的抄袭事件,这是理解“郭敬明现象”的重要因素。抄袭案的终审判决郭敬明构成对庄羽作品的整体性抄袭,判罚郭敬明赔偿庄羽20万元并公开道歉。郭敬明公然声明:只交钱、不道歉。郭敬明的态度招致了强烈的舆论讨伐,但他的粉丝却说:“抄袭有什么不好?只要是小四的,抄的我们也爱。”甚至出现了一个新成语,叫“三毛抄四”,说已故台湾女作家三毛的《梦里花落知多少》书名是抄袭“小四”!

      一般来说,80后的青年至少也受过高中教育,为什么会这么不讲道理?其实很好理解。一百年前法国学者勒庞在《乌合之众》中专门剖析了“群体意识”。勒庞认为,当一个人处于个体生存状态时,由于责任和惩罚的存在,其内在的野性和本能处于被抑制状态,此时他(她)是一个有责任的个人。一旦置身于人群中,每个人都隐姓埋名了,此时由于免于惩罚——中国就有“法不责众”的说法——大家就听任本能冲动,个人的原始野性和社会破坏力会被释放出来,从而丧失日常生活中的责任感和道德感。粉丝文化就是这样的文化:让每个人放弃自我,丧失个性之后,去追随他的偶像,然后寻死觅活地维护偶像的存在。在当下这个大数据时代,他们的追随其实很大程度上是被控制或被诱导的。所以郭敬明的粉丝——根据我的观察,包括韩寒的粉丝、崔永元的粉丝、赵本山的粉丝——都非常不讲道理。因为作为粉丝时,他们不再为自己作为个人承担责任,也不再需要道德。准确地讲,粉丝在群体状态下,因为意识受控于群体观念,丧失了个性,从而具有非理性、幻想性、偏执、狂热、非道德化的心理特征。

      资本权力与自由神话

      谈韩寒比较危险,不管支持他还是反对他,似乎永远是错的。关于代笔门的真假,我在这里无法作具体论证。我的观点是:作为文化现象的韩寒是一个矛盾的结合体,他身上结合了两种元素:一个是资本权力,一个是自由神话。

      《三重门》刚出版时,我作为一名北京大学当代文学博士后阅读了这本书。我不认为这是一部真正的少年杰作,而是觉得它是一部“经过成人深加工的平庸小说”。为《三重门》作序的是北京大学文学教授曹文轩。他写这篇序时,曾说过“在《三重门》的作者韩寒身上,却已几乎不见孩子的踪影。若没有知情人告诉你这部作品出自一个十几岁的孩子之手,你就可能以为它出自于成年人之手。”曹文轩教授看不出少年作家的影子,本应质疑《三重门》的真实作者是否是这位反应试教育的少年,然而在序言中,曹文轩却用“有智慧助他”为自己的疑惑作了轻松的解释。“皇帝的新衣”不就是这样造出来的吗?看不见皇帝穿衣服,绝不是皇帝没穿,而是自己没看出来。

      2012年,“韩寒代笔”风波初期,我只是一个看客,后来才参与了质疑韩寒的阵容。继韩寒之后,方舟子也质疑过蒋方舟,但没能进行下去。这既是因为几乎没人呼应方舟子“倒蒋”,也因为蒋方舟毕业后任《新周刊》副主编,经常在电视上做嘉宾、秀才学。尽管疑惑不消,但舆论放过了展示实力的蒋方舟。如果韩寒像蒋方舟一样“出来走两步”,可能“倒韩”就自动消解了。

      韩寒为什么能走向神坛?我认为,根本原因是产业资本和文化权力的勾结。

      韩寒最初被打造成神话,是出于两个需要:一是韩寒家庭,尤其是他那个望子成龙的父亲韩仁均的需要,倒未必是韩寒本人的需要;二是上海《萌芽》杂志的需要。当时的《萌芽》经营惨淡,急于寻找脱困的捷径。它在“新概念作文大赛”时发现,所有参赛选手中,只有韩寒有特别的新闻价值。一位七门功课高挂红灯的桀骜少年获得作文大赛一等奖,不但极博眼球,还确证了《萌芽》是天才伯乐。后来的舆论确实将《萌芽》看作了发现甚至创造“天才作家”的圣地,于是在全国文学期刊极度萎缩的境况中,当年的《萌芽》订阅量从几千甚至几百本,一下攀升到五十万。

      在对“天才韩寒”的神话塑造中,除了文化权力,还有产业资本的力量。韩寒除了有“天才作家”、“公共意见领袖”的身份外,还是众多品牌有形和无形的代言人。近10年来,韩寒一直是被特殊推荐的“新浪博客头牌”。最近,韩寒代言了一组新浪移动客户端的户外广告,上面用了韩寒的照片,广告语为“新闻不是讨你喜欢”、“新闻不是审判”等。新浪到现在仍不愿意放弃韩寒,不正是觉得他还可以吸金吗?韩寒背后有强大的资本力量,最初是打造他、包装他,现在是利用他。

      韩寒神话的群众基础、社会基础是什么?是中国根深蒂固的封建文化。直到今天中国依然是一个习惯奴欲与崇拜的国度,不论我们想追求自由还是表现反叛,都要攀缘在一个偶像身上。德国哲学家本雅明说过,“哪里有乞丐,哪里就有神话”。“韩寒神话”就是我们遍布精神乞丐的文化制造出的产物。

      韩寒神话的另一个语境是反智主义回潮。中国当代反智主义盛行于文革时期,代表性口号是“读书无用论”、“知识越多越反动”;2000年以后,反应试教育的“天才作家”韩寒引领的是“不读书才有用”——七门功课高挂红灯,却一夜成名成为天才作家,最终更变成引领时尚的花花公子和一呼百应的公民意见领袖。“资本权力”和“自由神话”在他身上神话般糅合,造就了一代青年的梦想——这就是“韩寒”的独特魔力和资本价值。

      目前,韩寒事件是没有公论的。可是如果面对这样影响巨大的事件,我们都没有勇气、没有努力去追求真相,那简直等于精神自杀。麦克卢汉说:“为什么追求真相?因为真相使你自由”。所以对韩寒的追问,是对真相的追求,是对自由的追求。

      大数据时代,我们在媒介控制下的自由幻想中生活。媒介信息无止境地消费现实,因为盲从和轻信,我们常常是在假造的文化景观下群聚。我们会在资本权力和媒介权力、文化权力多重的夹击下失去真实,或者气馁妥协,变成它们的牺牲品。这就是当下中国文化的病态。

      《中国教育报》2015年3月30日第10版

文章来源:中国教育新闻网

 

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